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May 4, 2013 Comments off

Mining M&A – Top 40 Share attractiveness ranking

August 4, 2012 Comments off

Valuations across the mining industry are coming down as a result of low commodity prices and uncertainty about the future of the global economy. Many companies are reviewing investment plans, pressured by investors to return money to shareholders if the project pipeline is short of feasible investment opportunities. Most companies in the industry will be extremely careful with large-scale M&A at this moment, but for some companies with either a lot of cash or a good position to give out more equity the reduced prices could provide opportunities to make a big acquisition. The ranking presented below presents the attractiveness of acquiring any of the Top 40 mining companies.

An acquisition of any of the world’s largest 40 miners will have to be financed to a large extent by raising additional capital from equity holders, as the acquisition price would be too high for most companies to pay cash after taking on more debt. The attractiveness of executing a share deal to acquire a company is split into the current level of share depression (historic performance) and the outlook for the share as given in analyst targets (future performance).

The share depression is represented in the chart and the ranking below by taking the ratio of current share price compared to 52-week high, normalized to the performance of BHP Billiton, the largest company in the group (i.e. share depression of BHP Billiton = 1.0). The 52-week high is used surprisingly often in acquisitions as the price paid, as it is easy to accept for many shareholders of the target company that they will receive the highest price over the past year.

The outlook for shares is given by the ratio of consensus analyst target dividend by current share price. Whatever the historic performance of a share, the outlook ratio shows the expected potential for the share. For these large mining companies the consensus target is typically formed out of at least 10 equity analyst and banker targets. An overall ranking score of share attractiveness is calculated by dividing the outlook ratio by the share depression ratio.

In this initial ranking of attractive targets, using closing share price of August 3rd 2012, the top 5 positions are claimed by ENRC, Ivanhoe, Kinross, Peabody, and Anglo American. Each of these shares has taking a significant beating over the past year. Apart from Anglo they have all dropped about twice as far from their year high share price as BHP Billiton. However, analyst targets for each of the companies are high too, each being expected to gain at least 50% of value in the relatively short term. The combination of a big drop in share price and a promising upside makes the companies attractive for potential buyers. Clearly many more factors play a role in target selection, and politics, synergy potential, and several other factors rule out quick action for most of the top targets in the ranking. However, the chart and ranking below do serve well as a quick scan to see which companies are in the ‘danger zone’ of becoming an acquisition target.


©2012 | Wilfred Visser | thebusinessofmining.com

Recycling & the Future of Mining

April 15, 2012 7 comments

For thousands of years the mining industry has supplied the world with the raw materials the growing population needed for ever increasing consumption. However, mining is not the only supplier of these raw materials. Next to the primary mining industry a secondary mining industry is growing: ‘urban mining’. The existing stock of materials in the urban environment is recycled more and more. 38% of iron input in the steel making process comes from scrap. The average ‘new’ copper cable contains some 30% recycled material. The more we recycle, the less we need to mine. As mining costs increase because ‘easy’ mineral deposits are becoming scarcer and as technological improvements make recycling more competitive, the impact of urban mining on the traditional mining sector grows. How does this change the perspectives of the mining industry in the long term? And which factors will play an important role in shaping this future?

Read more…

Change for The Business of Mining

October 22, 2011 Comments off

The Business of Mining is facing change. The blog has built a strong position in the industry over the past year and is serving more and more readers. Because I move from full-time MBA studies to full-time employment the frequency and type of postings will change. In the future I aim to provide a weekly overview of the top stories in the industry and their implications.

More importantly, the blog will open up to other authors. Several highly qualified people have displayed interest to contribute to the blog in the past year. If you are a qualified author and you are interested in sharing your industry insights on a regular basis (at least weekly) in the format of The Business of Mining, don’t hesitate to drop me a mail.

Time & Fortune’s ‘Energy for Tomorrow’ Competition

July 10, 2011 Comments off

Wilfred Visser, the author of ‘the Business of Mining’, is one of the finalists of Time & Fortune’s ‘Energy for Tomorrow’ essay competition. His essay ‘Why Smart Technology Is Not Enough’ describes the requirements for effective energy innovations in the urban environment. Read the essay here and vote for the best essay at http://www.time.com/energyfortomorrow.

Top 10 Priorities of Vale’s new CEO Murilo Ferreira

June 22, 2011 Comments off

Murilo Ferreira

The world’s second largest mining company has changed the man at the top. Roger Agnelli, who led the company for almost 10 years, was replaced by Murilo Ferreira last month. Though Agnelli grew the company into a global force in the industry, he did not manage to please the Brazilian government sufficiently. As a result the new president, Dilma Rousseff, pushed for a change. What is on top of the “To Do”-list for the new CEO?

An analysis of Vale’s latest annual and financial reports, the press conference to introduce the new CEO, investor presentations, and the news about the company in the latest months yields a list of 10 issues that are likely to be at the top of Ferreira’s list of priorities.

The list holds strategic, operational, financial and relational activities, each of which are scored in terms of importance and urgency. Priority 1 on the list is to build strong government relationships; priority 10 is to expand the metallurgical coal business in Latin America. Read on for the full list of priorities. For those readers working with Vale: don’t hesitate to forward the list to mr. Ferreira.

1. Build government relationships

Mr. Agnelli grew the company, but he did not manage to please the Brazilian government. The government controls the majority of the voting shares, and hopes to use Vale as a means to stimulate the domestic economy. The key task for mr. Ferreira will be to build strong government relationships without giving in to government requests which would hurt general shareholder value.

2. Develop strategic messages

A first step for each CEO after taking office is to get the key messages to be repeated over and over again to investors and employees. Especially Vale’s communication to the investor world has historically been poor. Selecting the key points to tell to the world the coming year(s) and tuning the communication and communication support is an important task during these first months.

3. Discuss tax & royalty claims

Related to the first point of building government relationships: the government claims a total of $16.0bln tax over the period 1996 to 2008 plus some $4.7bln in royalties (CFEM). Furthermore, Vale’s current effective tax rate is some 10% below official tax rate because of various tax incentives, for which the continuation is not sure. Reaching agreement with the authorities about these claims and the future tax incentives is crucial for the share price to increase.

4. Build global culture, integrate & decentralize

One of the key points mentioned in mr. Ferreira’s first press conference as CEO was the change of the company style towards a more decentralized system in which team work is incentivized more. Next to driving execution mr. Ferreira will need to be the living example of a global cultural change, in which each part of the business feels equally valuable.

5. Manage vertical integration in Brazilian steelmaking

The next (potential) issue with the Brazilian government is Vale’s role in the Brazilian steelmaking industry. The government wants to create a strong vertically integrated player, and therefore needs Vale to cooperate with players like Gerdau and Usiminas. Although it is in Vale’s best interest to stimulate domestic demand for iron ore to offset the disadvantage in transportation costs to supply the Asian market versus Australian mines, the company wants to stay a pure miner. Developing and discussing strategic options for the domestic industry will be an important task for mr. Ferreira to demonstrate his leadership.

6. Solve roadblocks for development execution

Vale plans to invest $17.5bln in new project development this year, but various projects run the risk of delay. Most roadblocks have to do with demands by federal and regional governments (e.g. the temporary suspension of the Rio Colorado project in Argentina), signalling the requirement to more proactively involve governments in planning procedures.

7. Manage operating cost pressures

A key competitive advantage to Vale is the low cost base of its operations in Brazil. The risk of lower iron ore prices forces mr. Ferreira to try to keep costs down at a time of cost inflation. Especially the management of the energy matrix (energy costs account for over 15% of COGS) and of outsourced services, which are sensitive to Brazilian wage inflation, will require management attention.

8. Compete for position in China

A key task for any big mining firm this decade is to fight for pole position in supplying the number one growth market: China. Mr. Agnelli secured various lucrative supply deals, but Vale did not yet sign significant partnerships. Mr. Ferreira has limited experience with the Chinese market and will thus need to spend time on getting to know the key players and developing relationships which are important for both future development and future supply contracts.

9. Transform internationalization organization

Vale still is a very much Brazilian company: out of the 120 thousand workers (incl. 40% contractors) 80% is located in Brazil. However, this Brazilian focus is starting to hinder the company in attracting international investors, customers, and employees. Even press conference in which new CEO was presented was conducted in Portuguese, certainly posing an obstacle to some investors. Appointing CEO with experience of working in North America is step in the right direction, but mr. Ferreira will need to do more to improve the international image of his company.

10. Build metallurgical coal business in Latin America

Partly driven by the need to diversify the company’s revenue base (68% of revenue still comes from iron ore & pellets, with an even higher percentage when looking at profits), partly driven by the need to build the domestic steel industry, Vale needs to gain access to metallurgical coal close to home. The company operates thermal coal mines in Brazil, but metallurgical coals needs to be imported. Exploration in Colombia is promising, but more needs to be done to build the coal business.

Sources: Vale annual report 2010, Vale CEO press conference May 2011, Vale investor presentation February 2011

©2011 | Wilfred Visser | thebusinessofmining.com

Russia: Silent Mining Giant

June 16, 2011 Comments off

Although Russia accounts for about 14% of global mining, most professionals in the industry know very little about Russian mining. Apart from a few large steel companies most large Russian mining firms are unknown in the market, and few people could name the most important Russian mines or mining districts. However, driven by the huge potential of its reserves and the modernization of its industry the country is slowly gaining a more prominent position on the international mining stage.
This article explores the current situation of the Russian mining industry and identifies two key trends that will shape it in the next decade: a struggle for competitiveness; and internationalization of the key players.

Russia’s Reserves & Production

Figure 1 - Russian mining production and reserves

Russia has been blessed with a large variety of mineral reserves across the country. The peninsulas in the northwest, the Ural mountains, Siberia, and the Far East all house important mining districts. Crucial inputs for economic development, like iron ore and coal, are abundant. The country holds 15-20% of the world’s reserves for these resources. The country’s position in reserves of gold and diamonds is very strong too. For a few minerals with only a small global market, like palladium and magnesium compounds, the country even has the potential of dominating the market. The most important observation when comparing the share of world reserves and the share of current global production is that for almost all key minerals the share of reserves exceeds the share of production (See Figure 1). In other words; it is likely that Russia will become more important in the global mining industry.

Current production in the country is more than sufficient to satisfy domestic demand, making Russia a net exporter of mineral goods. The country’s net export balance for ores, slag & ash was $1.3bln and for iron & steel over $14bln in 2010 (Source: ITC), with China being the largest trade partner for ores and Italy being the primary (initial) destination of Russian iron & steel.

Balancing domestic supply and demand

Russia is growing, and mining is needed to fuel this growth. Russian annual GDP growth varied from 4.7% to 8.1% in the period 2001-2008, outpacing growth in the western world (Figure 2). The economic crisis has hit Russia hard, making the economy shrink by almost 8% in 2009; recovering by 3.8% in 2010. However, growth is expected to outpace western growth in the coming years.

As a result of the high growth of the domestic economy, various industry development could take shape. If productivity increases, the potential of Russian reserves will enable a combination of exports and domestic sales, enabling rapid growth. However, if the Russian companies do not succeed in significantly increasing capacity, productivity will be too low to support both domestic and foreign growth. In this case export restrictions to protect the national growth could be instituted.

Corporate Landscape

The structure of Russia’s current mining production is largely shaped in the Soviet period. Mining districts were set up to provide the country with mineral self-sufficiency decades ago. After privatization in the ‘90s most of the state owned assets have been combined in the current private companies. The privatization and the poor financial situation of the Russian government at the time has led to a typical characteristic of the Russian mining industry: the importance of tycoons. Many private companies are owned and controlled by one or a few founders. These founders were at the right place at the right time and knew the right people at the time of privatization. Their position has further been strengthened by the government’s desperate need for funds, resulting in large amounts of debt being issued to the tycoons.

Figure 2 - Russian and global GDP growth

Whereas company owners in the rest of the world typically try to gain control over companies via the stock market, the large ownership stakes held by the tycoons in Russia lead to frequent power struggles among major shareholders. The struggle for control over Norilsk Nickel is the most recent example: Interros, controlled by Vladimir Potanin, and Rusal, controlled by Deripaska,both try to gain the majority in the board of Norilsk Nickel, one of the world’s largest suppliers of nickel and copper. In the last years the power struggles have led to the emergence of clear domestic champions for most of the key commodities: Rusal for aluminium; Norilsk Nickel for nickel and copper; Suek and Mechel for coal; Alrosa for diamonds; TVEL for uranium, etc. For steel and gold the landscape is (and probably will stay) more fragmented.

Attracting investment

Read more…

Peru cancels Southern Copper’s Tia Maria Project

April 15, 2011 1 comment

“Peru has canceled the controversial Tia Maria project owned by Southern Copper Corp., a mining ministry spokeswoman said Friday. The spokeswoman said the project was ruled “unacceptable” by the ministry, which is in charge of giving approvals for mining projects.

The cancellation was announced at a brief televised press conference of regional and national government representatives following the deaths this week of three anti-Tia Maria protesters. ‘We want to return to normal,’ said Peruvian Minister for Energy and Mining Pedro Sanchez, who refused to answer further questions. A spokesman for Southern Copper Peru said the company had no immediate comment.

The Tia Maria mine project, which was seen producing 120,000 tons of copper a year, had been dogged by a series of protests from residents fearing it would damage their water and environment.”

Source: Wall Street Journal, April 8 2011

Observations:

  • Southern Copper, part of Grupo Mexico, is one of the world’s largest copper miners, but is largely unknown by many people in the industry. The company has operations in Mexico and Peru and exploration projects in Chile.
  • The 120 thousand ton/year Tia Maria project should have increased expected 630 thousand ton production in 2011 to 700 thousand ton/year in 2012. Approx. 3/4 of the company revenue comes from copper.

Implications:

  • Southern Copper will need to submit a new environmental study to prove the mine will not contaminate groundwater. Public opinion in Southern Peru has turned against the company and led to large protests.
  • The intervention by Peru’s government might have impact on other development projects in the country. Furthermore, a potential increase of mining taxes is one of the key debates in the presidential election. Miners in Peru will have to be more aware of the social and political operating environment in the coming years.

©2011 | Wilfred Visser | thebusinessofmining.com

Mining Industry Scenarios 2011-2014

March 11, 2011 1 comment

How could the mining industry develop in the period 2011 to 2014?

The mining industry is facing uncertain times. In response to the World Economic Forum’s ‘Mining & Metals scenarios to 2030’ I developed two short term scenarios for the mining industry. Both scenarios describe a plausible, consistent, potential development of the industry in the next 3 years:

 

Scenarios:

  • In Red Wave, China’s government manages to sustain demand growth, resulting in high commodity prices. At the same time China invests heavily all around the world, forcing other miners to focus on organic growth.
  • In Countercurrent, revaluation of the renminbi and high interest rates in China lead to lower commodity demand. Prices decrease across the board. Miners struggle to maintain positive margins. New project development becomes of secondary importance.

Full transcript of the video can be downloaded here

©2011 | Wilfred Visser | thebusinessofmining.com

The Most Influential People in Mining 2010

December 30, 2010 4 comments

2010 has been an exciting year for the mining industry. The Australian Super Profits Tax debate came to a climax; the iron ore pricing mechanisms was changed to a system related to the spot market after 40 years of benchmark pricing; the Western Australian Iron Ore Joint Venture between Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton was cancelled; BHP attempted to acquire PotashCorp; 33 Chilean miners were at the center point of global media attention when they were rescued after 68 days underground. Who have been the world’s most influential people in the mining industry this year?

The Business of Mining.com gives a top 25. Based on a combination of metrics on ‘Opinion Impact’ (both public opinion and boardroom opinion) and ‘Decision Impact’ (both for 2010 and for the future). The list features a combination of industry leaders, politicians, journalists, advisors and regulators. 24 men; 1 woman. 5 Australians; 4 South Africans; 3 Chinese, 3 Americans; 2 Indians; 2 Canadians; 2 Brits; 1 Guinean; 1 Kazakh; 1 Mongolian; 1 Brazilian. The figure below gives an overview of the 25 most influential people in mining in 2010.

(Blue dots: industry leaders; green dots: journalists; orange dots: advisors; red dots: politicians; black dots: regulators)

1. Marius Kloppers – CEO BHP Billiton

Heads the world’s largest mining company. Tried to add potash to the portfolio of the company by (unsuccessfully) offering $39bln for PotashCorp of Saskatchewan. Earlier in the year not only played an active role in the debate about the Australian super profits tax, but also in the attempt to form a Joint Venture for iron ore export from Western Australia. Is furthermore seen as one of the key drivers behind the change of the iron ore pricing scheme.

2. Tom Albanese – CEO Rio Tinto

Heads the world’s third largest mining company. Worked with Kloppers on the Pilbara iron ore JV, the new pricing mechanism for iron ore, and the lobbying against the super profits tax as proposed by Kevin Rudd. Used 2010 to restructure the capital structure of his company and to strengthen the ties with Chinese industry and government via various deals with Chinalco.

3. Roger Agnelli – CEO Vale

Heads the world’s second largest mining company and largest iron ore producer. Less well-known in the west than Kloppers and Albanese, but certainly a powerful leader in the mining industry. Secured development opportunities in Guinea and in potash production expansions while carefully building relationships with the Brazilian government and the new president: Dilma Rousseff.

4. Tony Clement – Industry Minister Canada

The man that killed BHP Billiton’s hopes of acquiring PotashCorp by imposing unacceptable conditions in order to secure the deal’s ‘benefit for Canada’.

5. Cynthia Carroll – CEO Anglo American

The only women in the list, heading the fourth largest diversified miner in the world. Led the company back to profits after a dramatic 2009. Was appointed chairman of related Anglo Platinum this year and holds directorships of De Beers and BP. Furthermore plays a role in the debates about the future of the industry at the World Economic Forum.

6. Graeme Samuel – Chairman of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

Head of the regulating body that was the key obstacle for the Joint Venture between BHP Billiton and Anglo American to export iron ore from Western Australia as the JV would have given the two companies a position that would threaten global competition.

7. Michael (Mick) Davis – CEO Xstrata

Heads the world’s fifth largest diversified mining company, build rapidly by acquisitions under the helm of Davis. Proposed a merger with Anglo American in 2009, and continues to look for expansion options. Plays an important role in the debate around a potential merger of Xstrata with trading house Glencore, the company’s largest stakeholder.

8. Kevin Rudd – Former Prime Minister Australia

The brain behind the Australian super profits tax, designed to skim the ‘excessive profits’ of mining firms. The public debate around the tax was one of the reasons Rudd was not re-elected. Although not in the office anymore, the idea of the super profits tax was implemented by the new government in an adjusted form.

9. Julia Gillard – Prime Minister Australia

Benefited from the drop in popularity of Kevin Rudd to take over the position of Prime Minister of Australia. Did involve the miners in redesigning the law into the Minerals Resource Rent Tax (MRRT), eliminating its major shortcomings. However, the new law, which will become active in 2011, will drastically increase profits for the mining operations in Australia, forcing many mining firms to re-evaluate investments.

10. Jacques Nasser – Chairman of BHP Billiton

The man behind the scenes at BHP Billiton. Worked with Kloppers on all major events this year, including the super profits tax, the Pilbara JV, and the PotashCorp offer. Appointed former British Minister Shriti Vadera on the company’s board and prepared the decision to restart high dividend payments to shareholders.

11. Xiong Weiping – President Chinalco

12. Anil Agarwal – Executive Chairman Vedanta Resources

13. Partha Bhattacharyya – Chairman Coal India

14. Ivan Glasenberg – CEO Glencore

15. Mahmoud Thiam – Minister of Mines and Geology Guinea

16. Sukhbaatar Batbold – Prime Minister Mongolia

17. Brad Wall – Prime Minister Saskatchewan

18. Xi Jinping – Trade Minister China

19. Vladimir Kim – Chairman Kazakhmys

20. Duncan Sloan – Global Mining Lead Accenture

21. Mike Elliott – Global Mining & Metals Lead Ernst & Young

22. William MacNamara – Mining Analyst Financial Times

23. Robert Friedland – Founder Ivanhoe Mines

24. John Chadwick – Editor International Mining

25. Chen Yan – Governor China Development Bank

 

©2010 | Wilfred Visser | thebusinessofmining.com