Posts Tagged ‘Ivanhoe’

M&A Share Attractiveness Ranking – February 2013

February 17, 2013 Comments off

The latest update of the M&A share attractiveness ranking for the world’s 40 largest mining companies demonstrates the current slump of gold (and to lesser extent copper) mining stocks. Discounting Ivanhoe, which has been taken out by Rio Tinto, ENRC tops the list of companies that might become the target of an acquisition. The company’s stock moved higher over the past weeks on acquisition rumors, reducing its attractiveness ranking, but analysts still see approximately 50% upside in the stock. Behind ENRC the ranking is dominated by gold and copper miners, with Anglo American the only non gold or copper miner in the top 10. Low gold and copper prices and the emergence of gold ETFs has depressed the share price of the miners over the past year, but most analysts still expect better times for this group of miners.

The M&A share attractiveness ranking is a combination of analyst expectations and current share level compared to the annual high, normalized against BHP’s share performance. The ranking provides a market perspective of how ‘cheap’ a stock is for potential acquirers.

Mining M&A - Share attractiveness chart - 130217

Mining M&A - Share attractiveness ranking - 130217

Mining M&A – Top 40 Share attractiveness ranking

August 4, 2012 Comments off

Valuations across the mining industry are coming down as a result of low commodity prices and uncertainty about the future of the global economy. Many companies are reviewing investment plans, pressured by investors to return money to shareholders if the project pipeline is short of feasible investment opportunities. Most companies in the industry will be extremely careful with large-scale M&A at this moment, but for some companies with either a lot of cash or a good position to give out more equity the reduced prices could provide opportunities to make a big acquisition. The ranking presented below presents the attractiveness of acquiring any of the Top 40 mining companies.

An acquisition of any of the world’s largest 40 miners will have to be financed to a large extent by raising additional capital from equity holders, as the acquisition price would be too high for most companies to pay cash after taking on more debt. The attractiveness of executing a share deal to acquire a company is split into the current level of share depression (historic performance) and the outlook for the share as given in analyst targets (future performance).

The share depression is represented in the chart and the ranking below by taking the ratio of current share price compared to 52-week high, normalized to the performance of BHP Billiton, the largest company in the group (i.e. share depression of BHP Billiton = 1.0). The 52-week high is used surprisingly often in acquisitions as the price paid, as it is easy to accept for many shareholders of the target company that they will receive the highest price over the past year.

The outlook for shares is given by the ratio of consensus analyst target dividend by current share price. Whatever the historic performance of a share, the outlook ratio shows the expected potential for the share. For these large mining companies the consensus target is typically formed out of at least 10 equity analyst and banker targets. An overall ranking score of share attractiveness is calculated by dividing the outlook ratio by the share depression ratio.

In this initial ranking of attractive targets, using closing share price of August 3rd 2012, the top 5 positions are claimed by ENRC, Ivanhoe, Kinross, Peabody, and Anglo American. Each of these shares has taking a significant beating over the past year. Apart from Anglo they have all dropped about twice as far from their year high share price as BHP Billiton. However, analyst targets for each of the companies are high too, each being expected to gain at least 50% of value in the relatively short term. The combination of a big drop in share price and a promising upside makes the companies attractive for potential buyers. Clearly many more factors play a role in target selection, and politics, synergy potential, and several other factors rule out quick action for most of the top targets in the ranking. However, the chart and ranking below do serve well as a quick scan to see which companies are in the ‘danger zone’ of becoming an acquisition target.

©2012 | Wilfred Visser |

Mining Week 15/’12: Coal in Mongolia, no coal in Australia.

April 9, 2012 Comments off

Top Stories of the Week:

  • Chalco bids for Mongolian coal miner
    • Chalco (holding company = Chinalco) made a tentative $930mln offer for 57.4% ownership of SouthGobi Resources, a Canadian listed company, currently owned by Ivanhoe resources.
    • Sources: Financial Times; Wall Street Journal
  • Coal production issues in Australia
    • BMA, the coal JV between Mitsubishi and BHP Billiton in Queensland, declared force majeure after a week long strike in some of its mines. The labor conflict has been going on for almost a year, with workers campaigning for better contract rights for contracted workers and to retain the union’s power in recruiting decisions.
    • Sources: Financial Times
  • Alcoa again cuts production
    • Alcoa, the largest aluminium producer in North America, announced it would cut alumina production by 2% to support prices.
    • At the start of the year Alcoa cut aluminum production, at that time by 12% and mainly in the USA. The 2% alumina cut is said to be aligned with this 12% ‘final product’ cut.
    • Sources: Wall Street Journal; Financial Times; Alcoa press release

Trends & Implications:

  • The potential Chalco – SouthGobi deal appears to be engineered by or via Rio Tinto. Chinalco owns a significant stake of Rio Tinto, which became the majority shareholder of Ivanhoe recently with the key objective of quickly developing the Oyu Tolgoi gold-copper mine (also in Mongolia).
  • Despite a general demand boom which has not passed aluminum many major aluminum producers are posting losses. Profit margins over the past 10 years average below 10%. The key reason for this situation is an overcapacity resulting in oversupply and high inventory levels. Aluminium is currently one of the very few mined natural resources that could be seen as a ‘demand-driven’ market rather than a ‘supply-driven’ market for price setting. However, as more and more producers cut investment, the demand growth fundamentals should invert this situation in the next couple of years.

Alcoa's long term demand outlook as presented end of 2011

©2012 | Wilfred Visser |

Mining Week 04/’12: First test for Vale’s CEO vs. Brazilian government

January 29, 2012 Comments off

Top Stories of the Week:

  • Vale starts to fight back against tax rulings
    • Vale announced its plans to appeal to the governments intent to charge $5.6bln worth of taxes on foreign earnings. The clash with the government promises to be the first real test for the new CEO Murilo Ferreira.
    • Mr. Ferreira took over the leadership of the company from Roger Agnelli, who was not reelected partly based on a disagreement with the government (which is control Vale via state-controlled shareholders) over $2bln taxation.
    • Sources: Vale press release; Financial Times; Bloomberg
  • Rio Tinto assumes full control of Oyu Tolgoi

Trends & Implications:

  • Vale estimates the impact of a review of the tax code on the company’s earnings to be approx. 4-5% of earnings. Taxation regimes around the world for specifically iron ore and copper mining are reviewed to make the countries benefit more from ‘extreme’ profits, which could be seen as a temporary phenomenon. However, the key issue in Vale is facing now is a debate about double taxation; paying taxes over profits after taxes realized in countries where the company is operating.
  • Rio Tinto’s control over Ivanhoe will help the company to put in place its management structure and have the project managed by some of its top project developers. Gaining full control of the project in this stage will help Rio Tinto to build the project according to the company’s standards, preventing costly and above all time-consuming future transitions in the operating structure. The global standards that enable effective project management more and more set the world’s largest miners apart from the ‘small’ mining firms with only a few operating assets. Very much like GE has become known as a great ‘project management company’, the world’s largest miners are more and more developing into ‘mine development’ companies in which development speed is the key success factor and navigating politics in developing countries is a key skill.


©2012 | Wilfred Visser |

Rio moves closer to Ivanhoe takeover

December 9, 2010 Comments off

“Rio Tinto has moved closer to taking over Canada’s Ivanhoe Mines, owner of a vast Mongolian mining project, after Rio pledged up to $4.3bn in a multi-pronged financing deal that will boost Rio’s stake in Ivanhoe to 42 per cent from 35 per cent. Rio and Ivanhoe, the vehicle of mining entrepreneur Robert Friedland, also suspended arbitration surrounding their joint development of Oyu Tolgoi, a deposit that is expected to be one of the world’s biggest new sources of copper and gold.

In a complex agreement reached on Wednesday Rio will finance the completion of Oyu Tolgoi in exchange for options that allow it to raise its equity stake in Ivanhoe to 49 per cent by January 2012. In that month the 49 per cent shareholding cap lapses, allowing Rio to buy additional shares. Ivanhoe shares fell 13 per cent in early Toronto trading, as the prospect of an alternative buyer for Ivanhoe receded.”

Source: Financial Times, December 8 2010


  • In July of this year Rio Tinto announced its intention to take control of the Oyu Tolgoi operation by increasing its share in Ivanhoe. However, the board of Ivanhoe made it hard for the company to gain a majority stake of the company.
  • The company is in full development of the operation in Mongolia, planning to start production in 2013. However, to have good access to the Chinese market the rail infrastructure connecting Mongolia and China needs to be improved.


  • Most likely Rio Tinto will increase its stake of Ivanhoe rapidly after January 2012, as the Oyu Tolgoi deposit promises to be highly profitable if current copper price levels persist.
  • For some time rumors about potential involvement of an additional Chinese investor for the mine were going around. However, though strengthening ties with the Chinese industry and government last month, Rio has indicated to prefer developing the deposit without additional support.

©2010 | Wilfred Visser |

The ‘Natural Resource Curse’ in Mongolia

October 29, 2010 Comments off

“Mongolians were until recently wont to describe themselves as “beggars sitting on a huge pile of gold”. The country has vast but largely untapped mineral deposits. Until recently wages were low and jobs scarce. Shoppers in Ulan Bator, the capital, were not spoilt for choice—unless they were in the market for dried meat, vegetables or furry hats.

But with the recent launch of several big mining projects, a transformation looms. It will present the government with a different set of problems: how to manage a promised economic boom without devastating the environment or destabilising either the economy or the nation’s fledgling democracy.”

Source: The Economist, October 21 2010


  • Mongolia had a GDP of of $9.4bln in 2009. The benefits for the country from the Oyu Tolgoi copper deposit and the Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit will add many billions to the GDP, turning the trade deficit into a significant surplus.


  • The natural resource curse implies that the abundance of natural resources in a country hinders the development of stable government organizations, as it provides a reason for corruption and promotion of weak legislation. Mongolian government is trying to escape from this curse by strengthening anti-corruption legislation, taxation policies and by improving transparency of the dealings with foreign companies.
  • Foreign mining companies investing in Mongolia (Ivanhoe, Rio Tinto and potentially Chinese partners) clearly need political stability. Key part of their entry strategy will have to be a non-market strategy: aiding the government to institute legislation, penalize corruption and build infrastructure. Reducing the risk of the projects in the long term is worth a good deal of money, given the foreign capital expenditure of over $4bln.

©2010 | Wilfred Visser |

Mongolia confident IPO will ease doubts

October 8, 2010 Comments off

“Mongolia’s pitch to become the new frontier for metals and mining is facing renewed scrutiny from investors around the world as a Mongolian coal miner completes a landmark listing in Hong Kong.

Mongolian Mining Corp (MMC) is set to raise at least $650m after pricing its shares on Tuesday in Hong Kong in the middle of a target range set by advisers JPMorgan and Citi.

The initial public offering, representing 20 per cent of the company’s equity, creates the first homegrown, multibillion-dollar miner in a country that possesses little capital or infrastructure, but vast deposits of coal, copper and gold.”

Source: Financial Times, October 5 2010


  • MMC holds the license to part of the enormous Tavan Tolgoi coal field. The government says this field is perfectly suited to export coal to the Chinese market. The government is planning to sell 50% of the ownership of the deposit to investors.
  • Tavan Tolgoi is located in the south of Mongolia, in the same area as Oyu Tolgoi, a copper deposit partly owned by Rio Tinto via Ivanhoe Mines.


    Potential infrastructure - Ivanhoe explanation

  • In order for foreign investors to invest in the coking coal deposit, the government will need to invest heavily in infrastructure. Both transportation to the mine (and from the mine to China) and availability of water in the region are concerns the government will have to answer to.
  • Cooperation between the develop of Tavan Tolgoi and Oyu Tolgoi by extending the required 290km railway connecting Oyu Tolgoi to the Chinese rail network to the Tavan mine appears to be inevitable.

©2010 | Wilfred Visser |

Ivanhoe escalates Rio Tinto dispute

July 15, 2010 1 comment

“A dispute between Rio Tinto and Canada’s Ivanhoe Mines over a Mongolian copper and gold mine escalated on Wednesday when the Vancouver-based company suggested it was opening the door to “third-party strategic investors

Ivanhoe said its board voted on Tuesday to terminate a clause in a 2006 pact between the two companies that prevents Ivanhoe from issuing more than 5 per cent of its shares to third parties.

The move means Rio, the financier of the Mongolian mine at Oyu Tolgoi near the Chinese border, faces the threat of dilution of its holding in Ivanhoe or the possibility that another miner may gain a foothold on the project. Rio said it was ‘very confident of its existing rights under the private placement agreement with Ivanhoe [from 2006]’. However, on Monday, the Anglo-Australian miner launched arbitration against Ivanhoe over an earlier complaint.”

Source: Financial Times, July 15, 2010


  • Rio Tinto is owning part of the Oyu Tolgoi project, one of the richest undeveloped copper deposits in the world, via its stake in Ivanhoe.
  • A special agreement between Rio and Ivanhoe enables Rio to increase its take in the project by exercising warrants to increase Ivanhoe ownership. However, the agreement prevents Rio from obtaining a majority stake in the Mongolian project until 2011.


  • Rio Tinto clearly wants to gain control over the development and operation of the new copper mine, which will enable the company to provide secure access to copper for the Chinese market. The company will try to buy additional shares of the project as soon as possible after the agreement with Ivanhoe expires.
  • Ivanhoe management will be driven by hopes to retain as much control as possible over the project and at the same time tries to increase the value of its stake and shares to gain more from Rio’s attempts to buy control. Inviting other companies to buy parts of Ivanhoe will increase the price Rio will eventually have to pay to buy a majority share.

©2010 –

Rio Tinto confirms Mongolian mine interest

July 9, 2010 Comments off

“Rio Tinto has ended months of speculation by confirming plans to swap its shares in Ivanhoe Mines for a direct stake in Mongolia’s Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold project, which is 66 per cent owned by the Canadian miner.

Rio owns an indirect interest in Oyu Tolgoi, one of the world’s largest undeveloped copper deposits, through its 29.6 per cent stake in Ivanhoe.

The group also confirmed in a US Securities and Exchange regulatory filing on Wednesday that Chinalco, the Chinese aluminium producer that is its largest shareholder, was interested in investing in the Mongolian project, either directly or through buying an equity stake in Ivanhoe.

The end result of the talks could be a two-way or three-way agreement between Ivanhoe, Rio and the Chinese company, Rio said in the filing.”

Source: Financial Times, July 8, 2010


  • Rio Tinto could increase its stake of the Oyu Tolgoi operation to 47%, leaving Ivanhoe with 19%. 34% of the remaining shares are owned by the Mongolian government.
  • The mine is planned to start operation in 2013, helping Rio Tinto to secure access to copper volumes, one of the key priorities in the company’s portfolio balancing.


  • Teaming up with Chinalco would both enable Rio Tinto to undertake more development projects with its restrained $5bln capital budget for the year and would strengthen the ties with Chinalco. Rio’s management has been working on strengthening the links with the Chinese state controlled company since early 2009.
  • Rio Tinto is clearly more interested in Oyu Tolgoi than in the other Ivanhoe assets (Ovoot Tolgoi coal operations, Kazakh Kyzyl gold, Mt. Isa & Tennant Creek). As takeover options for Ivanhoe are limited, gaining direct control over Oyu Tolgoi appears to be the best option to increase control over operations.

©2010 –

%d bloggers like this: